International canals

January 3rd, 2014

Panama CanalThe problem with international maritime canals is not fully cleared and solved by the admiralty law. The usage of the canals is associated with world shipping and they serve for the formation of a unified transport system. They have serious importance for the maritime transport and decrease much the voyage routes. They pass through the territory of a country and it manages its sovereignty. For the maritime canals are applied the principles of freedom of transit. They are demilitarized and neutralized, but for each of them there is certain agreements for taxes and restrictions. However, in spite of this there is a rule for innocent and peaceful passage through them. In the world ocean there are several highly important canals, such as Suez canal, Panama Canal and Kiel Canal. They decrease much the routes of voyages and reduce the cost of shipping.
The Suez canal is located in Egypt and links Mediterranean and Red Sea. It is very important trade link between Asia and Europe. For its passage has several international legal instruments, as the greatest influence on Egypt. The Suez canal is used, whether it is peace or war, to the right of innocent passage. There are limitations for military and commercial ships, but mostly for their sized and draft. Before proceeding the canal the ship reports its nationality and whether in transit or carrying cargo.
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Continental shelf

December 14th, 2013

ShelfThe continental shelf is a slope, where the drought continues at sea. Usually smoothly the depth increases and after 200 meters suddenly have a large change of depth. From an economic perspective, these are the treasures and minerals that are on the shelf. In the convention from 1958 the continental shelf is described as a legally established water space. With the latest Law of the Sea Convention is reaffirmed the mode shelf. There is an International Commission for the delimitation of the continental shelf, which is delimiting the continental shelf width and coordinates. The main principle is that the coastal country has sovereign rights over the resources and wealth on the shelf.
When a country intends to push cables and pipelines in the continental shelf, this should be consistent with the coastal country, as it could not refuse, but may ask for more conditions and regulations. About the the outer limit of the continental shelf, the main problem appear to the islands, as it is hard to find the borders of archipelagos.
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Exclusive economic zone

December 10th, 2013

Shipping fishThe Exclusive economic zone is new point of the International maritime and admiralty law. It was introduced by the Maritime Law convention. This area is a kind of compromise between interests to the coastal country, which has limited the application of domestic law. The width of the Exclusive economic zone is about 200 nautical miles and is free for shipping and operations of the vessel.
The regime of the Exclusive economic zone are described in the latest changes of the International maritime law convention. The country has rights in the use of resources are available to the coastal country. It should not be disturbed the shipping because it’s kind of open seas. Also important addition is that all the countries can lay cables, pipes and etc in this zone. The coastal country has authority over the protection of the marine environment, fisheries control.

Contiguous maritime zone

December 3rd, 2013

Ships merchantThe Convention from 1958 does not regulate the width of the contiguous zone of the country. That is important problem, which should be discussed by the International Maritime Organization. This is one of the maritime spaces, which affects very little in the Convention, but is quite important for the local governments. The contiguous zone is a water area over which the state exercises specific regulations. The government has the perimeter control, in place where may shift the regime of sovereignty to the regime of the high seas. The contiguous zone has width of 24 nautical miles, including the territorial seas width.
On the contiguous zone there are duty controls, sanitary control, tax control and migration control, but the principle for safety transition is available. The merchant ships should be able to pass through the 24 nautical miles zone without being disturbed by the local government, but should not perform any discharges and fishing. The merchant ships might be controlled by the local authorities and information from them might be requested.

International maritime straits

November 12th, 2013

GibraltarThe straits are formed naturally and part from the world ocean, used for shipping and maritime transport. Legally they are considered for the passage of vessels through. One criterion is the strait connecting two parts of the oceans, and they are free shipping. Before you establish the rules for crossing the straits, they were as free Sea.
Once the tide is part of the territorial sea of ​​a coastal State, it has dropped the idea of space – has control of the coastal State. Control of the NAA shipping and creating favorable conditions for transition. Peculiarities of the tides are that the foreign ships entitled to transit transition, moving on quickly to refrain from the threat and use of force. The vessel itself must comply with the requirements of international law. Mode switching with similar archipelago waters and territorial sea, as far as the coastal countries, the waters of the strait. The coastal State exercises control and its jurisdiction – fishing ban, total ban will not harm the marine environment, coastal states may regulate trafficking corridors.
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Archipelago waters

November 3rd, 2013

PhilipinesSeparate islands, which form a country, such as Philippines, Indonesia and etc in the international maritime law context are known as archipelago and the waters associated with them archipelago waters.
The characteristic of these countries is that water is defined by the state, as she agreed with the International Maritime Organization, a Law of the Sea Tribunal. It is characteristic that in these waters has corridors crossing and air corridors crossing – have allowed foreign ships and aircraft. Archipelago waters satisfy themselves archipelago country interests – economic, political, strategically. They are neither inland nor territorial sea. They can not be more than 100 miles.
Typical of these results is that the coastal State exercises control over the use of these waters. Convention recognizes the freedom of navigation of these waters, but must follow the rules of transit – from one point to another without going into port of archipelago country.

Territorial sea

October 24th, 2013

ShippingThe second maritime area from the shore into the sea is called the territorial sea – the guiding principle is freedom of passage through the territorial sea (the principle of peaceful/innocent passage through the territorial sea. Regarding the rights and duties of the coastal state – imposed is of the opinion that this country sovereignty over these waters. Considerations to have this principle is related to ensuring the security of the coastal State to protect its interests. breadth of the territorial sea before was determined depending on how far the power of the army of the state. The Conference of 1958 – but recognizes the sovereign right of States to the territorial sea, but not fix a specific number.
The Second Conference also not achieved. This issue is addressed pending the entry into force of the Convention on the Law of the Sea – 12 miles from the baselines. Right of innocent passage is codified from Conference 1958. All vessels can pass through the territorial sea have the the right to pass through this water area, but may be associated with entering the inland waters. The switch must be harmless, constantly crossed.
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Maritime Labour Convention entered into force

October 10th, 2013

MLC 2006Maritime Labour Convention (MLC 2006) entered into force in July 2013. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) this is one of the most important acts that will directly affect the work of the Sea. The 47 countries have ratified the act. Sailors in these countries have over 50% of all workers of the sea around the world. Three quarters of world tonnage covered by the Convention, reported today by the ILO.
“This convention is the fourth pillar, which regulates global shipping, which in turn supports 90% of world trade, and which we all depend”, said Dr Balkin Rosalita by the International Maritime Organization. More than 1.5 million seafarers worldwide MLC 2006 will set minimum standards for work. Moreover, the convention will contribute to the normal development of competition between shipping companies, according to the ILO.
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Internal waters

October 9th, 2013

Maersk ShipThe inland waters are pooled to baselines. Then they began to measure other marine space. All merchant ships have access to inland waters and private boats. There are limitations on warships – associated with allowing the passage. There are certain requirements. The general rule is that the ship is under the jurisdiction of their country, not coastal. The conditions for their passage for the commercial and merchant ships is associated with their immunity and protect the interests of the coastal country and government.
The countries are required to provide rights of countries that have access to inland waters.

Importance of International Maritime Law Conference

September 22nd, 2013

Territorial SeaThis conference affirms the basic principles of maritime law, approve the way to solve problems using ocean, is decided a number of issues fills obvious gaps in the existing maritime law and creating new institutions, principles and standards in maritime law. This convention creates a new legal order in seawater, it is used to facilitate relations between the countries, shipping, aviation, opportunities for efficient utilization and conservation of ocean resources and environmental protection. Unresolved problems of territorial sea – it is set to 12 miles from the so-called. baselines. Determine and output limit of the continental shelf – 200 meters. Filling the gaps in existing law to improve it cut shipping passing through the Straits, limiting the number of freedoms, expanding the scope of the provisions relating to the protection of the environment.
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